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No missing pages. See all condition definitions - opens in a new window or tab. About this product. Business seller information. Contact details. Return policy. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Our spectroscopic observations are summarized in Table 2. Column 2: instrument.
Column 3: observing dates. Column 5: observed wavelength range. Column 7: angular size of lenslets or fibers. A representative spectrum from each galaxy is shown in Figure 2. The GMOS data were reduced using version 1. Figure 2. Dotted lines indicate spectral channels that were masked during fitting. Each spectrum was continuum-divided before fitting and plotting. GMOS is seeing limited, with a lenslet scale of 0 2.
cpanel.openpress.alaska.edu/oracle-database-10g-new-features.php We observed each BCG with the 0 05 lenslet scale and broad H -band filter, which covers several metal absorption lines and CO and OH vibrational bandheads at observed wavelengths of 1. We observed kinematic template stars using the same filter and lenslet scale as the BCGs. Spatial variations in instrumental resolution are negligible relative to the velocity broadening in BCGs. Figure 3. We also display an off-center spectrum for each galaxy; the corresponding spatial region is near the major axis, with an inner radius of 0 4 and an outer radius of 0 7.
Dotted lines indicate spectral channels that were masked during fitting, and dashed red lines indicate residual features from telluric OH, which were also masked. We used version 2. In their investigation of M87, Gebhardt et al. Although we mask the narrow residual features when measuring stellar kinematics, the missing spectral channels conceal information about the overall shapes of absorption features.
Further difficulties arise from defining a continuum level among the blend of metallic and molecular absorption features in the H band.
Data from this period exhibit increased dark noise and possible errors in spectral extraction and wavelength calibration. Each fiber has a diameter of 4 1; this is the limiting factor in spatial resolution, rather than optical seeing. The spectral resolution varies over different fibers and also with wavelength.
Because we employed the Mitchell Spectrograph for wide-field coverage rather than fine spatial resolution, we did not perform any sub-dithers to fill the gaps between fibers. We used the Vaccine data reduction pipeline to perform bias subtraction and flat-fielding, compute the wavelength solution for each fiber, extract a spectrum for each fiber, model and subtract the sky spectrum, and reject cosmic rays. Detailed descriptions of the data reduction procedures can be found in Adams et al.
The maximum radius at which Mitchell Spectrograph data can yield robust kinematic measurements depends on the surface brightness profile of the galaxy, the background sky conditions, and the overall integration time at a given pointing.
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For each galaxy, we have binned numerous fibers at large radii and preserved data for which a good kinematic fit was recoverable for at least one binning scheme. Sample spectra from the central and outer regions of each galaxy are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. Example spectra from the Mitchell Spectrograph. For each galaxy, we display spectra corresponding to the smallest and largest radii where we employ Mitchell Spectrograph data in our stellar orbit models.
Our dynamical models fit weighted and superposed stellar orbits to LOSVDs extracted from spectroscopic data. The MPL fitting method is described in detail in Gebhardt et al. A spectral binning factor is necessary to smooth over channel-to-channel noise in some spectra. Mitchell Spectrograph spectra do not require smoothing.
Although we are able to perform a global equivalent width adjustment before fitting stellar templates, some of the individual metal lines exhibit further mismatch between the galaxy and template equivalent widths.
Some molecular features are blended with the suspect metal lines, and others are compromised by residuals from telluric OH subtraction. Mitchell Spectrograph spectra contain a multitude of absorption features, which are dominated by different stellar types and require different equivalent width adjustments. Following the procedure of Murphy et al. Our fits use a set of 16 template stars selected from the Indo-US library Valdes et al.
We compute the instrumental resolution as a function of wavelength in each fiber and convolve the template spectra with an appropriately weighted instrumental resolution profile for each galaxy spectrum. After fitting each galaxy spectrum, we discard sub-regions with visually unconvincing fits or severely asymmetric LOSVDs. In each trial, random noise is scaled to the root-mean-squared residual of the original fit and added to the galaxy spectrum before re-fitting.
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